XF 1.5 Image proxy is showing a broken image

ungovernable

Active member
We have been having issues with the image proxy for over a year. I looked at a lot of threads reporting similar issues, but I couldn't find a solution.

The image proxy works for most images, but it's broken for some specific websites such as Facebook or Twitter.
The default "broken image" logo is displayed instead of the remote image: 1590728616711.png

The proxied image's headers looks fine:
1590728687720.png

Nothing useful in the image proxy log
1590731139715.png

  • I tried to disable Cloudflare, clear cache, disable addons, nothing helps ...
  • Remote image is valid when trying to open the non-proxied image in my browser
  • Image show when editing the post (non-proxied)
  • I tried to file_get_contents() the original facebook image in a separate test.php file, and it works, so my IP is not blocked (curl also works)
  • Many threads suggest it could be a server-side issue, but I already asked my server management company to help me and they couldn't find anything wrong so they told me to contact XenForo support. I even tried to contact cPanel support. What specifically are we supposed to look for beside the usual firewall stuff?
  • PHP 7.1

What should I do to debug this issue?
 
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