No, as there isn't anyway to tell what's a customization that you made specifically. The only way to do this currently would be to do your customizations in a child language (though this will expose both languages to users).
FWIW, a similar system is used. You'd have the same problem with templates if you edited a third-party style directly and then tried to update it. There, you would need to make your changes to a child style and then the outdated templates (and by parallel, the outdated phrases) system would allow you to detect where changes need to be made.