XF 2.2 upgraded from 1.5.24 - forum appears broken for non-logged in users


I upgraded to 2.2.3 from 1.5.24.

The forum only works and appears normally for logged in users.

However, non-logged in users only see a textual version of the website! It seems to display the old (cached?) version of xenforo 1, it even displays the old adsense from xenforo 1.

How do I solve it?
I don't have any add-ons installed, removed all older add-ons. Changed back to the default theme. No ads enabled on the xenforo 2 installation. These page return the older cached version of xenforo with the ads that were there even though I disabled them before the upgrade. It displays the year 2019.
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